Trisha Shetty (Editor)

990s

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990s
Categories  Births Deaths By country By topic Establishments Disestablishments

By place

Africa
  • Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo.
  • Europe
  • The city of Lund, Denmark (now Sweden) is founded.
  • By topic

    Religion
  • The Pax Ecclesiae, an edict by the church in southern France, attempting to outlaw acts of war against non-combatants and the clergy, is promulgated.
  • By place

    Asia
  • Bakjur tries to capture Aleppo, but is defeated, captured and executed by the Hamdanid emir Sa'd al-Dawla, with Byzantine assistance.
  • Europe
  • March: Æthelred the Unready, King of the English, and Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy, sign a treaty of friendship, stating that neither will harbour the other's enemies.
  • August 10 – Battle of Maldon: The Anglo-Saxons are defeated by Viking invaders, led by Olaf Tryggvason (later Olaf I of Norway).
  • Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne.
  • By place

    Africa
  • The Ghana Empire captures the Berber town of Awdaghost.
  • Europe
  • Boleslaus I becomes Duke of Poland.
  • Battle of Conquereuil: Fulk Nerra defeats Conan I of Rennes, who is killed in the battle.
  • Viking settlers establish a mint in Dublin, to produce silver pennies.
  • By topic

    Religion
  • July 4 – Saint Ulrich of Augsburg is canonized.
  • Astronomy
  • An increase in carbon-14 concentration, recorded in tree rings, suggests that a strong solar storm may have hit the Earth in either 993 or 994.
  • By place

    Europe
  • Sweyn Forkbeard marries Sigrid the Haughty.
  • Otto III reaches his majority, and begins to rule Germany in his own right.
  • Aethelred II pays £16,000 of Danegeld to Olaf Trygvasson.
  • Middle East
  • September 15 – Battle of the Orontes: The Fatimids defeat a Byzantine army, led by Michael Bourtzes.
  • By topic

    Astronomy
  • An increase in carbon-14 concentration, recorded in tree rings, suggests that a strong solar storm may have hit the Earth in either 993 or 994.
  • By place

    Asia
  • The Liao Dynasty sends a patent of investiture to the new Goryeo king.
  • Europe
  • Upon the death of Eric the Victorious, he is succeeded by his son Olof Skötkonung, as the first baptized king of Sweden.
  • Basil II lifts the siege of Aleppo, by mounting his entire army, and transferring it across Anatolia in sixteen days.
  • Constantine III becomes king of Scotland.
  • Boleslaus II of Bohemia massacres the Slavnik's dynasty at Libice.
  • Olaf Tryggvason is crowned king of Norway, and builds the country's first church.
  • Aldhun, Bishop of Lindisfarne, moves his episcopal see from Chester-le-Street to Durham in England, to which the remains of Saint Cuthbert (d. 687) are translated.
  • By place

    Asia
  • Al-Aziz Billah, fifth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, dies and is succeeded by his son, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.
  • The Niujie Mosque is constructed in Beijing.
  • The citizens of Tyre rise up in revolt against the Fatimid Caliphate.
  • Europe
  • March or April – Pope John XV dies before being able to crown Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. Otto resides in Pavia, while waiting for the election of the next Pope.
  • May 21 – Sixteen-year-old Otto III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by his cousin, Pope Gregory V.
  • October 24 – Hugh Capet, King of France, dies and is succeeded by his son, Robert II of France.
  • November 1 – Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi (Austria in Old High German).
  • In a continuing effort to expend northward, the de facto ruler of al-Andalus, al-Mansur, captures the city of Astorga.
  • In the Duchy of Normandy, peasants revolt against the Scandinavian aristocracy.
  • By topic

    Religion
  • May 3 – Pope Gregory V succeeds Pope John XV as the 138th pope. He is the 24-year-old Bruno of Carinthia, grandson of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, and first cousin of Otto III. He is the first German Pope.
  • By place

    Europe
  • The first documented reference, to the city of Gdańsk, is made.
  • Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia, by Boleslaus I of Poland.
  • Samuil of Bulgaria is crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V.
  • Trondheim, Norway is founded by King Olav Tryggvason. This will function as the main city and capital of Norway, until Bergen is founded in 1070.
  • In Spain, the Muslim de facto ruler of al-Andalus, al-Mansur, with the support of the Christian Portuguese knights, sacks one of Christendom's holiest sites of pilgrimage, Santiago de Compostella. On their way, they sack the cities of Zamora and Leon.
  • In Southern Italy, Smaragdos and Peter lead a rebellion against Byzantine rule.
  • By place

    Asia
  • Battle of Ghazni: Mahmud of Ghazni wins, and succeeds as the Amir of Ghazni.
  • June – Tyre is stormed by the forces of the Fatimid Caliphate, ending a two-year rebellion of its citizens.
  • 19 July – Battle of Apamea: The Fatimid army, under Jaysh ibn Samsama, defeats and kills the Byzantine general Damian Dalassenos.
  • The Uji Villa is officially built by Michinaga Fujiwara, as predecessor of Byodo-in in Yamashiro Province, (present day of Kyoto Prefecture) Japan.
  • Europe
  • Otto III retakes the city of Rome, and reinstates his cousin, Pope Gregory V, after mutilating and blinding his rival, Antipope John XVI.
  • St. Volodimir of Rus founds (or, according to some documents, gives his name to) the city of Volodimir of Wolyn, future capital of the kingdom of Ruthenia Minor (Halych-Wolyn Rus).
  • Emperor Samuil of Western Bulgarian Tsardom launches a military campaign against Kingdom of Croatia, and besieges the city of Zadar.
  • By topic

    Religion
  • A Benedictine abbey is founded at Sherborne.
  • St. Volodimir, Prince of Kiev Rus (modern Ukraine, Russia and Belarus), baptizes his country.
  • By place

    Asia
  • The Liao Dynasty Emperor Shengzong commences annual attacks, against the Song Dynasty of China.
  • The Samanid Dynasty ends with the invasion of the Karakhanids, from north of the river Syr-Darya.
  • The Marth Mariam Forane Church is established in Arakuzha Village, in Kerala.
  • Europe
  • December 30 - The Battle of Glenmama is fought in Ireland.
  • Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland.
  • The Orsay Commune is founded in France.
  • By topic

    Religion
  • April 2 – Gerbert of Aurillac becomes Pope Silvester II, and succeeds Pope Gregory V as the 139th pope.
  • Sigmundur Brestisson introduces Christianity in the Faroe Islands.
  • Christianity is adopted in Iceland.
  • References

    990s Wikipedia


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