The 1st National People's Congress (simplified Chinese: 第一届全国人民代表大会; traditional Chinese: 第一屆全國人民代表大會; pinyin: Dìyī Jiè Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) was in session from 1954 to 1959. It held four plenary sessions in this period. There were 1226 deputies to the Congress.
The first plenary session was held in September 1954. The Congress passed the 1954 Constitution of the People's Republic of China. It elected the state leaders: