Girish Mahajan (Editor)

List of foreign observers of Russia

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In the following list of foreign observers of Russia dates are normally date of first publication, or other appropriate date where this is not possible

  • 922: Ahmed ibn Fadlan travelled from Bagdad to near Kazan, saw Vikings
  • c. 950: Ahmad ibn Rustah went to Novgorod
  • c. 1241: Snorri Sturluson described Rus chieftains as typical Vikings
  • c. 1300: Marco Polo mentioned Russia as a distant country in the far north
  • 1476: Ambrogio Contarini Venetian ambassador to Persia, passed through Moscow. Early (earliest?) printed source
  • 1486: Iurii Trakhaniot Muscovite ambassador to Milan, interviewed by Milanese officials, their report possibly not published
  • 1487: Giosafat Barbaro Venetian to Sea of Azov, published 1543
  • 1515 Jacob Piso: Polish anti-Russian propaganda, never in Russia
  • 1517: Maciej Miechowita "first accurate geography of Eastern Europe"
  • 1519 Christian Bomhover: Teutonic Knight, first book solely on Russia, very hostile, never visited Russia, little cited by later authors.
  • 1525–1543: Albert Compense, Paolo Giovo, Johan Fabri: Favorable accounts in interest of church union. Never in Russia.
  • c. 1527: Sigismund von Herberstein, Habsburg ambassador to Moscow. Saw government as despotic. Much copied by later writers.
  • 1553: Richard Chancellor reached Muscovy via the White Sea, wrote Booke of the Great and Mighty Emperor of Russia
  • 1561–1583: During the Livonian War a number of anti-Russian pamphlets published in the German lands.
  • 1578: Heinrich von Staden German soldier, in oprichnina
  • 1586: Antonio Possevino Papal diplomat
  • 1589: Richard Hakluyt published voyages of the Muscovy Company
  • 1589: Anthony Jenkinson, with Muscovy Company, to Moscow, Astrakhan, Bukhara and Persia, published in Hakluyt
  • 1591: Giles Fletcher, the Elder English ambassador to Muscovy, wrote Of the Russe Common Wealth
  • 1607: Jacques Margeret French mercenary, 'first printed French book on Russia'
  • 1610: Isaac Massa Dutch merchant and envoy, via White Sea
  • 1615: Peter Petreius Swedish diplomat, wrote History of the Grand Duchy of Moscow
  • 1617: Conrad Bussow German involved in Time of Troubles
  • 1621: Jerome Horsey with Muscovy Company
  • 1647: Adam Olearius Holstein ambassador to Persia via Muscovy and the Volga
  • 1653: Paul of Aleppo favorable view of an Orthodox theocracy. In Arabic, English translation 1829
  • 1663: Juraj Križanić Croat and proto pan-slav. Advocated liberalizing reforms similar to the later enlightened despotism
  • 1671: Samuel Collins (physician) physician to the Czar
  • c. 1678: Nicolae Milescu Moldavian in Siberia and China
  • c. 1680: Patrick Gordon: Scots soldier, left diary
  • 1682: John Milton A Brief History of Muscovy compiled from other sources
  • 1687: Foy de la Neuville possibly travelled in Russia
  • 1701: Dembei Japanese castaway taken to St Petersburg
  • 1712: Tulishen Manchu ambassador to Russia and the Kalmycks
  • 1721: Friedrich Christian Weber German diplomat
  • c. 1723: Lorenz Lange Swede in Siberia and China
  • 1729–32 Two Chinese embassies to Russia
  • c. 1733: Johan Gustaf Renat Swede captured by Russians and then Dzungars. Mapped Siberia and Dzungaria
  • 1746? Georg Wilhelm Steller journals of the Bering expedition
  • 1751: Johann Georg Gmelin, with Bering, botany of Siberia
  • 1757: Gerhard Friedrich Müller, with Bering, examined Siberian archives
  • 1771: Peter Simon Pallas German natural historian
  • 1784: William Richardson (classicist) Scots traveler
  • c1829: Alexander von Humboldt German naturalist
  • 1839: Marquis de Custine very hostile
  • 1847: August von Haxthausen publicized the peasant commune
  • 1870: George Kennan (explorer) in eastern Siberia
  • 1876: Edward Delmar Morgan British traveler and translator
  • 1877: Donald Mackenzie Wallace British journalist
  • 1894: Constance Garnett translated Russian novels
  • 1909: Jeremiah Curtin visited Buryats
  • 1913–1919: Arthur Ransome English author, journalist and translator; witnessed revolution
  • 1919: John Reed (journalist) witnessed revolution
  • For the Soviet period see Category:Western writers about Soviet Russia
  • References

    List of foreign observers of Russia Wikipedia


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