|Covid-19|Head of state (monarch) – Queen Victoria (consort – Vacant)
Governor general – Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (viceregal consort – Maud Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marchioness of Lansdowne)
Prime minister – John A. Macdonald
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia – Clement Francis Cornwall
Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba – James Cox Aikins
Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick – Robert Duncan Wilmot (until November 11) then Samuel Leonard Tilley
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia – Matthew Henry Richey
Lieutenant Governor of Ontario – John Beverley Robinson
Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island – Andrew Archibald Macdonald
Lieutenant Governor of Quebec – Louis-Rodrigue Masson
Premier of British Columbia – William Smithe
Premier of Manitoba – John Norquay
Premier of New Brunswick – Andrew George Blair
Premier of Nova Scotia – William Stevens Fielding
Premier of Ontario – Oliver Mowat
Premier of Prince Edward Island – William Wilfred Sullivan
Premier of Quebec – John Jones Ross
Lieutenant Governor of Keewatin – James Cox Aikins
Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories – Edgar Dewdney
March 26 – Louis Riel and the Métis battle the North-West Mounted Police at Duck Lake
April 2 – North-West Rebellion: In the Frog Lake Massacre, Cree warriors kill nine settler civilians and take 70 captive
April 24 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Fish Creek fought between Canadian Militia and the Métis
May 2 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Cut Knife
May 9–12 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Batoche the Métis are defeated in battle
May 15 – Riel surrenders near Batoche, District of Saskatchewan, and is arrested
May 28 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Frenchman's Butte
June 3 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Loon Lake. The last Cree resistance is shattered.
July 2 – Big Bear captured.
July 6 – Riel is charged with six counts of high treason.
July 20 – The trial of Louis Riel begins in Regina, District of Assiniboia
August 1 – Riel is found guilty and sentenced to death
September 9 – The Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench refuses to hear Riel's appeal
September 15 – Northwest Territories election
October 22 – The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council refuses to hear Riel's appeal
October 31 – Newfoundland election: Robert Thorburn's Reforms win a majority
November 7 – The Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Craigellachie, British Columbia. John A. Macdonald receives a telegram announcing that the first train from Montreal in Quebec is approaching the Pacific.
November 16 – Riel is hanged in Regina.
November 27 – In Battleford, Wandering Spirit, Round the Sky, Bad Arrow, Miserable Man, Iron Body, Little Bear, Crooked Leg and Man Without Blood are hanged for murders committed during the Frog Lake Massacre. It the largest mass execution in Canadian history.
Banff National Park, the first national park in Canada is established
A head tax on Chinese immigrants is imposed by the federal government
Canada outlaws the potlatch ceremony among Northwest Coast tribes. The law, often ignored, is repealed in 1951.
January 11 – Gordon Daniel Conant, lawyer, politician and 12th Premier of Ontario (d.1953)
January 13 – Alfred Fuller, businessman (d.1973)
February 4 – Cairine Wilson, Canada's first female Senator (d.1962)
April 3 – Allan Dwan, film director, producer and screenwriter (d.1981)
April 9 – Frank Patrick O'Connor, businessman, politician and philanthropist (d. 1939)
May 8 – Thomas B. Costain, journalist and historical novelist (d.1965)
June 27 – Arthur Lismer, painter and member of the Group of Seven (d.1969)
July 23 – Izaak Walton Killam, financier (d.1955)
July 31 – Charles Avery Dunning, politician, Minister and university chancellor (d.1958)
October 23 – Lawren Harris, Group of Seven painter (d.1970)
November 5 – Edgar Sydney Little, politician (d.1943)
December 5 – Ernest Cormier, engineer and architect (d.1980)
December 24 – Abraham Albert Heaps, politician and labor leader (d.1954)
January 13 – Gilbert Anselme Girouard, politician (b.1846)
February 23 – Joseph Edouard Cauchon, politician (b.1816)
April 8 – Susanna Moodie, writer (b.1803)
May 8 – James Colledge Pope, politician and 5th Premier of Prince Edward Island (b.1826)
June 8 – Ignace Bourget, bishop of the Diocese of Montreal (b.1799)
July 17 – Jean-Charles Chapais, politician (b.1811)
August 18 – Francis Hincks, politician (b.1807)
November 5 – David Anderson, Church of England priest and bishop of Rupert's Land (b.1814)
November 16 – Louis Riel, politician and Métis leader (b.1844)
1885 in Canada Wikipedia
Events from the year 1885 in Canada.