President: Andrew Jackson (Democratic)
Vice President: Martin Van Buren (Democratic)
Chief Justice: John Marshall (Virginia)
Speaker of the House of Representatives: Andrew Stevenson (D-Virginia) (until June 2), John Bell (Whig-Tennessee) (starting June 2)
January 25 – Hillsborough County is created by Florida's territorial legislature.
March 11 – United States Survey of the Coast transferred to the Department of the Navy.
March 28 – The United States Senate censures President Andrew Jackson for his actions in defunding the Second Bank of the United States (censure expunged in 1837).
April 14 – The Whig Party is officially named by United States Senator Henry Clay.
June 30 – the 6th Indian Trade and Intercourse Act is updated and renewed Indian Territory is effective.
July 7–10 – Anti-abolitionist riots in New York City.
July 29 – Office of Indian Affairs organized.
August 11–12 – Ursuline Convent Riots: A convent of Ursuline nuns is burned near Boston.
November 4 – Delta Upsilon fraternity founded at Williams College.
November 11 – The rare 1804 dollar coin is struck by the United States Mint
Worcester Academy is founded as the Worcester County Manual Labor High School.
Franklin College is founded in Franklin, Indiana.
The Medical College of Louisiana is founded in New Orleans, which later becomes Tulane University.
Wake Forest College is founded in Wake Forest, which later becomes Wake Forest University.
The Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad is chartered in Wilmington, North Carolina, and begins construction.
January 9 – Wilkinson Call, United States Senator from Florida from 1879 till 1897. (died 1910)
March 4 – James W. McDill, United States Senator from Iowa from 1881 till 1883. (died 1894)
June 28 – Samuel Pasco, British-born United States Senator from Florida from 1887 till 1899. (died 1917)
July 19 – Benjamin F. Jonas, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1879 till 1885. (died 1911)
August 27 – James B. Eustis, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1876 till 1879 and from 1885 till 1891. (died 1899)
September 5 – John G. Carlisle, United States Senator from Kentucky from 1890 till 1893. (died 1910)
September 6 – Samuel Arnold, conspirator involved in the plot to kidnap U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1865 (died 1906)
October 9 – Rufus Blodgett, United States Senator from New Jersey from 1887 till 1893. (died 1910)
December 6 – Henry W. Blair, United States Senator from New Hampshire from 1879 till 1891. (died 1920)
December 24 – Charles W. Jones, Ireland-born United States Senator from Florida from 1875 till 1887. (died 1897)
February 28 – Isaac D. Barnard, United States Senator from 1827 till 1831. (born 1791)
May 20 – Marquis de Lafayette, French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War, died in France (born 1791)
August 24 – William Kelly, United States Senator from Alabama from 1822 till 1825. (born 1786)
1834 in the United States Wikipedia
Events from the year 1834 in the United States.