May 25 – Joseph Priestley's account of his isolation of oxygen in the form of a gas ("dephlogisticated air") is read to the Royal Society of London.
Torbern Bergman's De attractionibus electivis ("A Dissertation on Elective Attractions") is published, containing the largest tables of chemical affinity ever published.
July 30 – 3-year second voyage of James Cook completed, the first eastabout global circumnavigation, during which the Antarctic Circle has been crossed three times, Terra Australis shown to be a myth, and Larcum Kendall's K1 chronometer demonstrated to be a reliable timekeeper for the purpose of calculating longitude.
Lagrange's Recherches d'Arithmétique develops a general theory of binary quadratic forms.
English surgeon Percivall Pott finds the first occupational link to cancer, contributing to the science of epidemiology.
German physician Melchior Adam Weikard anonymously publishes the textbook Der Philosophische Arzt including the earliest description of symptoms resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
February 21 – La Specola, Florence's Museum of Zoology and Natural History, opens to the public.
Johan Christian Fabricius publishes his Systema entomologiæ.
Peter Forsskål's Descriptiones Animalium: Avium, amphiborum, insectorum, vermium quæ in itinere orientali (containing early observations on bird migration) and Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica sive descriptiones plantarum quas per Ægyptum Inferiorem et Arabiam felicem detexit are published posthumously, edited by Carsten Niebuhr.
James Watt's 1769 steam engine patent is extended to June 1800 by Act of Parliament of Great Britain and the first engines are built under it.
Jacques-Constantin Périer operates a paddle steamer on the Seine, but it proves to be underpowered.
Thomas Crapper patents a flush toilet in London.
Edinburgh confectioner Charles Spalding devizes improvements to the diving bell, adding a system of balance-weights.
Pierre-Simon Girard, age 74, invents a water turbine.
December 30 – John Arnold takes out his first patent for improvements in the construction of marine chronometers in Britain, including the first for a compensation balance.
Copley Medal: Nevil Maskelyne
January 22 – André-Marie Ampère, French physicist (died 1836)
February 9 – Farkas Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician (died 1856)
May 10 – William Phillips, English geologist (died 1828)
July 23 – Étienne-Louis Malus, French physicist and mathematician] (died 1812)
September 30 – Robert Adrain, Irish-born mathematician (died 1843)
November 19 – Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger, German entomologist and zoologist (died 1813)
March 3 – Richard Dunthorne, English astronomer (born 1711)
October 25 – Johan Maurits Mohr, Dutch astronomer (born 1716)
1775 in science Wikipedia
The year 1775 in science and technology involved some significant events.