| Country code top-level domain|
Entities connected with Brazil
.br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil. It was administered by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil) until 2005 when it started being administered by Brazilian Network Information Center (Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto br). A local contact is required for any registration. Registrations of domain names with Portuguese characters are also accepted.
With the exception of universities, the second-level domain is fixed and selected from a list that defines the category. For example, site.art.br is in the art (music, folklore etc.) category, and site.org.br is in the non-governmental organization category. Institutions of tertiary education were allowed to use the ccSLD .edu.br, although some use .com.br and others (mainly public universities) use .br. There are also some other few exceptions that were allowed to use the second level domain until the end of 2000. As of April 2010, most domain registrations ignore categories and register in the .com.br domain, which has over 90% of all registered domains. The .jus.br (Judiciary), and .b.br (banks) domains have mandatory DNSSEC use.
Created and delegated to Brazil in 1989 by Jon Postel, initially the domain was operated manually by Registro.br and administered by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). Originally, only researchers and institutions to which they belonged had the interest and ability to adopt the new system and register domains under .br.
At the time, networks prevalent in the Brazilian academic setting were the BITNET ("Because It's Time NETwork"), the HEPnet ("High Energy Physics Network") and the UUCP ("Unix-to-Unix Copy Program"). As such, even before Brazil officially connected to the Internet in 1991, the .br domain was used to identify the machines participating in networks already in use by academics.
In 1995 the Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil "Internet Management Committee of Brazil" (CGI.br) was created with an objective to coordinate the allocation of Internet addresses (IPs) and the registration of .br domain names. There were 851 domains registered with the Brazilian DNS (Domain Name System") by the beginning of 1996, thereafter experiencing rapid growth with the mass arrival of companies, Internet providers and media onto the Internet. The registration system was automated in 1997 and was developed using open source software.
In 2005, CGI.br created his own executive arm, the Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR' "The Center for Information and Coordination of Dot BR" (NIC.br), which currently serves in both administrative and operational capacity for the registry.
To register any domains under .br, it is necessary to enter into contact with Registro.br. Entities legally established in Brazil as a company ("pessoa jurídica") or a physical person ("profissional liberal" and "pessoas físicas") that has a contact within Brazil can register domains. Foreign companies that have a power-of-attorney legally established in Brazil can also do it by following specific rules.
The registration of domains with special Portuguese characters (à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü and ç) is accepted since 2005.Minimum of 2 and maximum of 26 characters, not including the category. For example, in the field XXXX.COM.BR, this limitation relates to the XXXX.
Valid characters are [A-Z, 0-9], the hyphen, and the following accented characters: à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ç.
Domains cannot contain only numbers.
To maintain the integrity of the registry, Registro.br sets up an equivalence mapping to compare domain names with and without accented characters. The mapping is done by converting accented characters and the cedilla for their non-accented versions and "c", respectively, and discards hyphens. A new domain will only be allowed to be registered when there is no equivalent to a pre-existing domain, or when the applicant is the same entity that owns the domain equivalent.
Specifically for the domain .NOM.BR, it is necessary to choose two names, i.e.: NAME1.NAME2.NOM.BR.
.br is the most common Portuguese language Web site suffix, surpassing all other Portuguese-speaking countries' TLDs as well as .com in popularity.
There were initially 66 second-level domains:ADM.BR - Administrators
ADV.BR - Lawyers
AGR.BR - Agriculture-related companies and/or websites
AM.BR - AM radio companies, licensed by the Brazilian Communications Ministry
ARQ.BR - Architecture
ART.BR - Art: music, folklore, etc.
ATO.BR - Actors
B.BR - Exclusively for banking environment use (online banking, etc.).
BIO.BR - Biologists
BLOG.BR - Blogs
BMD.BR - Biomedics
CIM.BR - Realtors
CNG.BR - Scenographers
CNT.BR - Accountants
COM.BR - Commercial websites in general and individuals.
COOP.BR - Cooperatives
ECN.BR - Economy
EDU.BR - Higher education institutions
ENG.BR - Engineers
ESP.BR - Sports
ETC.BR - Entities that do not fit in other categories
ETI.BR - I.T. Specialists
FAR.BR - Pharmacies and drugstores
FLOG.BR - Photoblogs
FM.BR - FM radio companies, licensed by the Brazilian Communications Ministry
FND.BR - Phonoaudiologists
FOT.BR - Photographers
FST.BR - Physiotherapists
G12.BR - K12 education institutions
GGF.BR - Geographers
GOV.BR - Government entities
IMB.BR - Real estate
IND.BR - Industries
INF.BR - Media and information
JOR.BR - Journalists
JUS.BR - Brazilian Judiciary Branch of the State.
LEG.BR - Brazilian Legislative Branch of the State.
LEL.BR - Auctioneers
MAT.BR - Mathematicians and Statisticians
MED.BR - Physicians
MIL.BR - Brazilian Armed Forces
MUS.BR - Musicians
NET.BR - Commercial websites in general and individuals.
NOM.BR - People
NOT.BR - Notaries
NTR.BR - Nutritionists
ODO.BR - Dentists
ORG.BR - Non-profit non-governmental entities
PPG.BR - Publicity specialists and Marketeers
PRO.BR - Teachers
PSC.BR - Psychologists
PSI.BR - Online service providers
QSL.BR - Radio amateurs
RADIO.BR - Entities that wish to broadcast radio
REC.BR - Recreational activities, entertainment, leisure, games, etc.
SLG.BR - Sociologists
SRV.BR - Services providers
TAXI.BR - Taxis
TEO.BR - Theologians
TMP.BR - Temporary events, such as fairs and exhibitions
TRD.BR - Translators
TUR.BR - Tourism
TV.BR - Sound and image broadcasters, licensed by the Brazilian Communications Ministry
VET.BR - Veterinarians
VLOG.BR - Videologs
WIKI.BR - Wikis
ZLG.BR - Zoologists
However the restriction were dropped in 2013 and there are a significant number of second level domain names currently registered.